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Arthur Machen, Welsh horror fiction author, turns 150 this week

The Welsh horror fiction author Arthur Machen turns 150 this week. Machen, an influential figure in the budding supernatural fiction scene of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, is best known for his novella “The Great God Pan,” and for accidentally proliferating a legend about angels protecting the British army at the Battle of Mons in World War I.

The Ransom Center houses an extensive collection of items pertaining to the author, comprising 20 archival boxes of material. The Machen collection features handwritten drafts, page proofs with Machen’s notes, correspondence with family and friends including A. E. Waite and Oliver Stonor, and miscellaneous ephemera. Additionally, the Center’s Arthur Machen literary photography collection contains portraits of the author and his residences.

Machen’s accomplishments in fantasy and supernatural fiction inspired the admiration—and multiple pastiches—of a later generation of authors. “The Great God Pan” drew praise from such giants of the genre as H. P. Lovecraft and Stephen King. King credited it as the inspiration for his own novella N, proclaiming “Pan” to be “one of the best horror stories ever written, maybe the best in the English language.” Lovecraft, a contemporary of Machen’s, lauded “The Great God Pan” in his 1926 essay “Supernatural Horror in Literature,” saying: “No one could begin to describe the cumulative suspense and ultimate horror with which every paragraph abounds.”

The many who praised Machen often compared his writing to that of his American predecessor, Edgar Allan Poe. In a letter to a fan, which resides in the Ransom Center’s Poe collection, Machen addresses the sentiment with humility: “A good many people have compared my work with that of Poe… This was an immense compliment to me—but quite an undeserved one.” But Machen was also quick to differentiate his writing from Poe’s. He continues, “[Poe’s] terrors are as distinct as possible,” whereas Machen’s own are “vague, irrational, something like the broken recollections of a nightmare.”

Indeed, Machen’s style is of a uniquely Welsh variety. His works frequently cite those of his fellow countrymen, including George Herbert, who published a book of religious poems in 1633. The storied and ominously beautiful Welsh landscape is a frequent setting for Machen’s writing, particularly his childhood home in Monmouthshire, a county in southeastern Wales of significance to Celtic, Roman, and medieval history. In a letter housed at the Ransom Center, Machen describes his obsession with the eerie scenery behind the rectory where he lived: “From the windows one looked across a strangely beautiful country to the forest of Wentwood, above the valley of the Usk. Beneath this forest, on the slope of the hill there is a lonely house called Bertholly, and to my eyes and imagination this house was a symbol of awe and mystery and dread.”

Machen paints a similar picture—one “written to fit Bertholly”—in the opening scene of “The Great God Pan,” which describes the view from a rogue surgeon’s unsettling house-turned-laboratory: “A sweet breath came from the great wood on the hillside above, and with it, at intervals, the soft murmuring call of the wild doves. Below, in the long lovely valley, the river wound in and out between the lonely hills.”

150 years later, Machen’s influence lives on. Stephen King novels are widely read, having sold 350 million copies worldwide. Supernatural horror dramas permeate popular culture, with successful television series like American Horror Story capitalizing on themes prominent in Machen’s own works. Were he to witness many of horror fiction’s modern incarnations, Machen might detect a familiar scene, reminiscent of the lonely house called Bertholly situated in the misty hills of Monmouthshire.

 

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Photo Friday

Each Friday, the Ransom Center shares photos from throughout the week that highlight a range of activities and collection holdings. We hope you enjoy these photos that reveal some of the everyday happenings at the Center.

Senior Research Curator of Photography Roy Flukinger gives Ransom Center staff members a tour of the exhibition “Arnold Newman: Masterclass.” Photo by Alicia Dietrich.
Senior Research Curator of Photography Roy Flukinger gives Ransom Center staff members a tour of the exhibition “Arnold Newman: Masterclass.” Photo by Alicia Dietrich.
Project Archivist Daniela Lozano sleeves contact sheets from the Peter Buckley photography papers and photography collection. The collection is currently being processed and will open to the public in January 2014. Photo by Edgar Walters.
Project Archivist Daniela Lozano sleeves contact sheets from the Peter Buckley photography papers and photography collection. The collection is currently being processed and will open to the public in January 2014. Photo by Edgar Walters.
Volunteer James McBride catalogs 500-year-old Aldine Press books from the Uzielli collection. Photo by Edgar Walters.
Volunteer James McBride catalogs 500-year-old Aldine Press books from the Uzielli collection. Photo by Edgar Walters.

Photo Friday

Each Friday, the Ransom Center shares photos from throughout the week that highlight a range of activities and collection holdings. We hope you enjoy these photos that reveal some of the everyday happenings at the Center.

Guests gather in the south atrium during the “Face  To Face” opening event for “Arnold Newman: Masterclass.” Photo by Kelsey  Robinson.
Guests gather in the south atrium during the “Face To Face” opening event for “Arnold Newman: Masterclass.” Photo by Kelsey Robinson.
“Face To Face” guests visit the cupcake station during the event. Photo by Pete Smith.
“Face To Face” guests visit the cupcake station during the event. Photo by Pete Smith.
The photobooth at the “Face To Face” event recreated an Arnold Newman  photograph of Carl Sandburg and Marilyn Monroe. The Lomography Gallery Store  Austin shot the images on film. Photo by Lindsay  Hutchens.
The photobooth at the “Face To Face” event recreated an Arnold Newman photograph of Carl Sandburg and Marilyn Monroe. The Lomography Gallery Store Austin shot the images on film. Photo by Lindsay Hutchens.
Guests explore the exhibition “Arnold Newman: Masterclass” during the “Face To Face” opening event. Photo by Pete Smith.
Guests explore the exhibition “Arnold Newman: Masterclass” during the “Face To Face” opening event. Photo by Pete Smith.
"The Intertextual Sherlock Holmes," curated by graduate intern Arcadia  Falcone (shown here), is now on view outside the Reading  Room.  This display of rare books and periodicals features Sherlock  Holmes pastiches, parodies, and fanfictions from 1895 to 1975, including  works by Mark Twain, O. Henry, and John Lennon. Photo by Pete Smith.
"The Intertextual Sherlock Holmes," curated by graduate intern Arcadia Falcone (shown here), is now on view outside the Reading Room. This display of rare books and periodicals features Sherlock Holmes pastiches, parodies, and fanfictions from 1895 to 1975, including works by Mark Twain, O. Henry, and John Lennon. Photo by Pete Smith.

"Martin Scorsese" exhibition features items from Ransom Center

Makeup stills from "Raging Bull."
Makeup stills from "Raging Bull."

Martin Scorsese’s influential filmmaking legacy is the focus of a new exhibition, aptly titled Martin Scorsese, at the Deutsche Kinemathek—Museum für Film und Fernsehen in Berlin. The exhibition, which opened in January and runs through May 12, purports to examine “the rich spectrum of Scorsese’s oeuvre,” including his sources of inspiration, working methods, and lasting contributions to American cinema. The Ransom Center loaned 19 items from the Robert De Niro and Paul Schrader archives to supplement materials from Scorsese’s private collection. Together, they constitute the first international exhibition about Scorsese.

Martin Charles Scorsese grew up in New York’s Little Italy neighborhood in the 1950s, surrounded by a large Italian family and the high-pressure world faced by working-class immigrants. While life on the streets proceeded according to the rules of local gangsters, Scorsese’s asthma kept him largely confined to the house; he followed the outside world from his perch at the window. His older brother Frank recalls: “Marty had a tough childhood. But I used to keep him close. Take him to movies.”

The role of family, blood kin or otherwise, has been a central theme in Scorsese’s works, starting with the short films he made as a student. Throughout his career, he repeatedly cast family members as extras. Brotherly relationships are particularly prominent in Scorsese films, perhaps a product of growing up with tight bonds to his own brothers, or of the close partnerships he had with friends like Robert De Niro. For example, Scorsese’s 1980 film Raging Bull features brothers Jake La Motta (Robert De Niro) and Joey (Joe Pesci) as a New York boxer and his manager, respectively. Six Ransom Center items related to Raging Bull appear in the exhibition, including De Niro’s boxing gloves and trunks, and makeup test photographs with De Niro’s annotations.

Keychain used in "Cape Fear" by Robert De Niro. Photo by Pete Smith.
Keychain used in "Cape Fear" by Robert De Niro. Photo by Pete Smith.

Scorsese’s extensive knowledge of film history has undoubtedly reinforced his talents as a filmmaker. His 1991 remake of Cape Fear, originally a 1962 thriller directed by J. Lee Thompson, was met with positive critical reception, even inspiring a parody episode of The Simpsons. De Niro received Academy Award and Golden Globe nominations for Best Actor for his role in the film. Five items related to Cape Fear are featured at the Deutsche Kinemathek.

The exhibition pays tribute not only to Scorsese’s legacy as an American cinematic icon, but also to his commitment to the preservation of our international film heritage. The items on display are a testament to the enduring presence of film history as a referential guide for the ever-changing medium.

Photo Friday

Each Friday, the Ransom Center shares photos from throughout the week that highlight a range of activities and collection holdings. We hope you enjoy these photos that reveal some of the everyday happenings at the Center.

Ken Grant, Exhibition Conservator and Head of Exhibition Services, and John Wright, Chief Preparator, adjust lighting for the "Arnold Newman: Masterclass" exhibition, which opened on Tuesday. Photo by Edgar Walters.
Ken Grant, Exhibition Conservator and Head of Exhibition Services, and John Wright, Chief Preparator, adjust lighting for the "Arnold Newman: Masterclass" exhibition, which opened on Tuesday. Photo by Edgar Walters.
Lindsay Hutchens, shop manager at the Lomography Gallery Store, tests shots in the photo booth area before the “Face to Face” opening event. The Lomography Gallery Store will have an analog photo booth inspired by an Arnold Newman photograph set up at the event tonight. Photo by Alicia Dietrich.
Lindsay Hutchens, shop manager at the Lomography Gallery Store, tests shots in the photo booth area before the “Face to Face” opening event. The Lomography Gallery Store will have an analog photo booth inspired by an Arnold Newman photograph set up at the event tonight. Photo by Alicia Dietrich.
Project Archivist Savannah Gignac inventories personal effects from the Arnold Newman collection, including four pairs of his glasses and a stand he used for retouching photographs. Photo by Edgar Walters.
Project Archivist Savannah Gignac inventories personal effects from the Arnold Newman collection, including four pairs of his glasses and a stand he used for retouching photographs. Photo by Edgar Walters.

Fellows Find: Women behind the camera in and beyond the studio

Press pass for British photojournalist Christina Broom. 1910.
Press pass for British photojournalist Christina Broom. 1910.

Margaret Denny received a Marlene Nathan Meyerson Photography Fellowship to conduct research in the Ransom Center’s Gernsheim collection. Below she shares some of her findings at the Ransom Center.

During the past decade, I have conducted primary research on Victorian women in photography, an investigation that culminated in my dissertation From Commerce to Art: American Women Photographers 1850–1900 (University of Illinois at Chicago, 2010).

My current project For Love and Money: Victorian women photographers in and beyond the studio follows a select group of nineteenth-century American and British women photographers operating in the commercial realm of advertising, photojournalism, studio portraiture, and travel photography. The importance of this investigation is that current scholarship on the history of photography has diminished the importance of commercial work; it likewise has overlooked women in the commercial sphere.

With a fellowship at the Ransom Center, I have progressed closer to realizing my project as a publication. In pondering this experience, several impressions stand out—the Center as a rich repository of photographs and ephemeral materials, and, co-equal, the Center’s proficient staff members and systems that provide a stimulating, nurturing, and collegial environment in which to explore one’s topic. Through the proficient and patient stewardship of Emilio Banda and suggestions proposed by Senior Research Curator Roy Flukinger and Associate Curator of Photography Linda Briscoe Myers, I was able to navigate smoothly through box upon box of photographs, biographical material, and memorabilia. Even the tradition of weekly coffees and a brown bag lunch for fellows offers scholars and staff opportunities to exchange insights and information.

The Gernsheim collection of Victorian and Edwardian photography amassed by Helmut and Allison Gernsheim in England at the end of World War II and purchased by the Harry Ransom Center in 1963 became the focus for this study. The collection holdings present a rich glimpse into elite British society through the studio portrait practice of Alice Hughes. I viewed the wealth and breadth of photographs made by Hughes at the turn of the twentieth century in her London studio. Having researched Hughes at the National Portrait Gallery in London, it was beneficial to evaluate this expansive number of photographs to build on my earlier inquiry.

Another chronicler of Britain’s elites, Kate Pragnell operated commercially in London in the 1890s. The Center’s illustrated article on Pragnell showed her photography in more of its original context. The fact that Pragnell hired only women workers in her studio and wrote about her practice makes her an interesting case study.  These British women will be compared with the American photographers Frances Benjamin Johnston and Gertrude Käsebier as they shared the experience of being middle- to upper-class women who chose photography as a vocation. To investigate the media treatment of American and British women photographers, I reviewed issues of The Photogram published in England between 1894 and 1905 by American Catharine Weed Barnes Ward and her British husband H. Snowden Ward. Likewise, as a comparison to understanding opinions emanating from other journals of photography, I examined the issues of Alfred Stieglitz’s Camera Work, published from 1903 to 1917.

Equally germane to my investigation, the Center’s holdings contain over 350 photographs by British photojournalist Christina Broom. A documentarian of Edwardian fame, Broom photographed important British events from military maneuvers to Royal pageantry, most printed as picture postcards, a business that supported her family facing the loss of household income after her husband’s accident. In my project, Broom will be compared to Frances Benjamin Johnston, who operated as a photojournalist working with Bain News Service in America. Johnston’s assignments took her to Naples, Italy, where she photographed Admiral Dewey and his U.S.S. Olympia crew following their successful campaign in the Philippines during the Spanish American War. Equally notable, Johnston was the last photographer to photograph President McKinley, 17 minutes before his assassination in 1901.

As a seasoned researcher at a number of institutional archives, I feel the time spent at the Ransom Center put me in a more positive position to take my findings to publication. Because the staff made research suggestions beyond my original itinerary, I will be able to incorporate even more information in the study. As I continue to research the topic of women photographers of the Victorian Era into the Edwardian period, my larger goal is to develop the information into book format supported by a traveling exhibition. Having the opportunity to conduct research at the Ransom Center and to develop the narrative of women in the commercial realm of photography places me one step closer toward the realization of this major undertaking.

“On the Road” actors used audio recordings from Ransom Center’s collections to prepare for roles

The cover of a journal Jack Kerouac kept from 1948-49 while preparing to write "On the Road."
The cover of a journal Jack Kerouac kept from 1948-49 while preparing to write "On the Road."

The film On the Road, an adaptation of Jack Kerouac’s acclaimed novel of the same name, opens in theaters today. The Ransom Center holds a number of items related to the lives and works of the “Beat Generation” artists, including a journal Kerouac kept from 1948 to 1949 while preparing to write On the Road. In July 2010, a producer for the film contacted the Ransom Center with a request to help the actors access Beat culture and their characters’ personalities.

Kristen Stewart, best known for her role in the Twilight films, stars in On the Road as Marylou, a character based on Kerouac’s friend LuAnne Henderson. Kerouac once described Henderson as a “nymph with waist-length dirty blond hair,” but Stewart was eager to develop a more personal understanding of Henderson. Stewart, who said in an interview at the Toronto International Film Festival that On the Road has been her favorite book since she was 15, wanted to do Marylou justice.

To help with Stewart’s research, On the Road personnel requested a digitized copy of an interview with Henderson from the Ransom Center collections. Listening to Henderson offers a more personal understanding of her alter ego, Marylou, who remains something of an enigma. Stewart told CTV’s Canada AM, “[Marylou] is sort of, in the book, on the outskirts of things. You don’t know what’s going on inside her all the time.”

The interview was part of Barry Gifford and Lawrence Lee’s research for their oral biography of Kerouac, titled Jack’s Book and published in 1978. (Their research materials reside at the Ransom Center.) Gifford also served as a consultant on the film. In the interview, Henderson recalls her passionate but unpredictable relationship with Neal Cassady, whom she married at age 15. Cassady was the inspiration for the character Dean Moriarty in Kerouac’s novel, played in the film adaptation by Garrett Hedlund.

Despite opening the interview with a disclaimer that her “memory is really lousy,” Henderson’s stories are captivating. The episodes she recalls involve drama with Cassady’s ex-girlfriends, her experiences hitchhiking, and run-ins with the police. Henderson also reveals a more intimate and intellectual side to her relationship with Cassady. She remembers, “At night Neal would read me Shakespeare and Proust and whatever he was into.”

The Beats’ travels have acquired legendary status, which undoubtedly puts pressure on actors hoping to portray them convincingly and accurately. Fifty-five years after On the Road was published, archival materials offer the insight to help achieve precisely that.

Fellow discusses Ross Russell collection and Raymond Chandler

Judith Freeman, a fellow from the University of Southern California, discusses her research in the Ross Russell archive. Freeman’s focus lies primarily with noir, Raymond Chandler, and Los Angeles, but her time in the collections expanded her interest in jazz.

Freeman’s project, “Raymond Chandler’s Los Angeles,” was funded by the Erle Stanley Gardner Endowment for Mystery Studies.

Video highlights fellow’s work in Transcription Centre archive

Samantha Pinto came to the Ransom Center as a fellow from Georgetown University to work on her project “Africa, (Re)Circulated: Cosmopolitan Performances of Mid-Century Modernity.”

Pinto’s research, which focuses on the United States’s perception of Africa, involved documents and multimedia components from the Transcription Centre archive. The materials from the archive related to Africa are in their own finding aid, which Pinto says will make the Ransom Center a destination for students and scholars in the field of African and African Diaspora studies.

Pinto’s work was funded by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation Research Fellowship Endowment.

Related content:

Africa and the Archive:
Researching the Transcription Centre